Presentation titled Youth Club Sports: Growth Rate, Financing Practices, Participation Rates Among School Districts in Minnesota. Central District American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance Association Conference, Duluth, MN.   

Presentation titled Youth Club Sports: A Comparison Between North America and European Countries. Central District American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance Association Conference, Duluth, MN. 

Presentation titled Why is There Less Attention on Interscholastic Sport Sponsorships? American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance Association Convention, New Orleans, LA. 

Abstract titled Why is There Less Attention on Interscholastic Sport Sponsorships?  AAHPERD Proceedings. New Orleans, LA.